Parts of Speech
Noun -person, place, thing or idea
common noun – name general items – dog, school
proper nouns – named nouns – Mollie, Cleveland HS
concrete nouns – can be seen or touched/physical nouns – wall, hug
abstract nouns – cannot be seen or touched/mental nouns – love, bravery
Pronoun – replaces a noun –
interrogative pronouns – questions words ; they stand in for the answer of the question – who, what, when
personal pronouns – Personal pronouns stand in for people, places, things and ideas he, she, it, us
demonstrative pronouns – are used to demonstrate (or indicate). This, that, these and those
indefinite pronouns – stand in for general, non-specific nouns – all, some, any, each
relative pronoun – relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. Therefore, a relative pronoun acts as the subject or object of the dependent clause. which, that, who, where
Adjective – describes a noun or pronoun
predicate adjective – follows a linking verb and tells us something about the subject. Micah is wonderful.
Verb -action or state of being (to be verbs)
transitive – a verb which has an object. Amy rode a horse [object].
intransitive – verbs that do not have an object – She sits.
helping – verbs that are part of a verb phrase, the helping part – He is reading. She should sleep.
linking – A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It “links” the subject to what is said about the subject. The night became dark. The music sounds wonderful.
Adverb– describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb (usually ends in -ly, but not always )
describes verb – ran quickly.
describes adjective – very blue sky,
describes another adverb – cried rather loudly
Preposition – relates a noun to the rest of the sentence. [I always say “anything a plane can do to a cloud”]
Conjunction – connects parts of a sentence
coordinating conjunctions always connects similar elements – subject+subject independent clause + independent clause
FANBOYS = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
subordinate cconjunctions – connects a subordinate clause to an independent clause
many different types of subordinate clauses; some prepositions and relative pronouns are also used as a
correlative conjunctions – paired conjunctions that join sentence elements as grammatically equal
either…. or not only…. but also
Interjection – used to express sudden emotion
Verbals – words that look like verbs but act as adjectives or nouns
Participle – verb that ends in -ing and acts like an adjective
Past [tense] Participle – the broken ipod
Present [tense] Participle – the running horse
Gerund – verb that ends in -ing and acts like a noun
I am allergic to jogging.
Infinitive – to + verb, acts like a noun or an adjective
I like to sit in the front. He wants to see his girlfriend.