A phrase: is a group of words acting as a single part of speech and not containing both a subject and a verb.
Different types of Phrases
Prepositional phrase – begins with a preposition and ends with the noun [aka object of the preposition]; acts as either an adjective or as an adverb.
Adverb: She is weeding in the garden. Adjective: The book with the red cover is really good!
Verbal Phrase – begins with verbal and ends with the noun; acts as an adjective or a noun
Participial Phrase – begins with the participle and acts as an adjective; can be in past or in present tense. The participial phrase should be near the object it is describing [or modifying].
The children, laughing loudly, played hide and seek until nightfall.
Infinitive Phrase – starts with an infinitive and contains nouns and modifiers; can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
The best way to survive Dr. Peterson’s boring history lectures is a sharp pencil to stab in your thigh if you catch
yourself drifting off.
Gerund Phrase – begins with a gerund and might contain objects and modifers; functions as a noun.
Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine will result in disaster.
Independent Clause -contains a verb and its subject; can stand alone as a sentence
Ex. David Wagoner is a poet and a teacher.
Subordinate [aka dependent] Clause – contains a verb and its subject, BUT does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone. – starts with a subordinate conjunction. Ex. Who lives in Ohio.
Subordinate Clauses act as either adjective clauses, adverbial clauses, or noun clauses.
Adjective Clause – Subordinate clause that describes a noun or pronoun – answers which one, what kind, how much, or how many. Ex. A family is more than a group of people who are related.
Adverb Clause – Adverb clause – Subordinate clause that describes a verb, adjective, or adverb.
Ex. Most children leave home when the time is right.
Noun Clause – Subordinate clause that is used as a noun. Can function the same as a one-word noun.
Ex. That my brother influences me is obvious.